Collaborative Creativity & Produsage
Alvin Tofler coined the term ‘prosumer’ in the 1970, which has been used to indicate how the users agency float between the bipolar categories of either being producer or consumer. New terms as ‘produser’ and ‘co-creator’ have taken over, and namely Axel Bruns’ notion of ‘Produsage’ is dominating literature on the subject.
Key principles of Produsage:
1. Open participation, communal evaluation. A shift from dedicated individuals and teams as producers to a broader-based, distributed generation of content by a wide community of participants
2. Fluid heterarchy, ad hoc meritocracy. Members of a community of produsage participate as is appropriate to their personal skills, interest, and knowledges; such participation further changes as current points of focus for the produsage project change. Amateurs and professionals meets.
3. Unfinished artefacts, continuing process. Artefacts generated are no longer products in a traditional sense: they are always unfinished, and continually under development – such development is evolutionary and iterative.
4. Common property, individual rewards. Produsage is based on permissive regimes of engagement which are based on merit more than ownership: they frequently employ copyright systems which acknowledge authorship and prohibit unauthorised commercial use, yet enable continuing collaboration on further content improvement. Therefore we must move towards adopting open-source or creative commons.
User participation is encouraged in many different genres of online communities or sites. 1. Social Networking Sites (FB, Twitter, LinkedIn), 2. Knowledge Management (Wikipedia, Google Earth), 3. Creative Practice (YouTube, Flickr, HitRecord), 4. Multi-User Online Gaming (The Sims), 5. Citizen Journalism, 6. Collaborative Filtering (Amazon, Google Search), 7. Open Source Software Development.
Our focus to this thesis will be on (3)Creative Practices.
What is really interesting about this, is to explore the users’/participants’ (Roskilde Festival’s target group) interest and motivation for creating/contributing/sharing their creative ideas/production in an online community with people they may not know. Why devote much time and energy to create content and what to expect in return? How do they feel about ownership of the content they put online? Is it okay for other people to use the content in a remix/mash-up?